Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) however, the evidence is inconsistent. During pregnancy, this deficiency is even more critical. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between low maternal serum vitamin d levels and gestational diabetes mellitus in tertiary
Methods: This cross-sectional study included 140 pregnant women. 70 women already diagnosed with GDM were taken as cases and 70 normal pregnant women were taken as control. All the patients included were subjected to detailed history taking. BMI matched in cases and controls. Blood sample were taken from both cases and control ant sent for Vitamin-D level, HbA1c, Fasting blood glucose and 2hrs postprandial glucose test.
Results: In this study an attempt has been made to assess the association of maternal serum vitamin D with Gestational diabetes mellitus and also to see its relation with glycemic control in patients with GDM. Overall 71% Indian women are vitamin D deficient in our study. The mean maternal serum vitamin D levels were 8.83 ± 5.77ng/ml in Group A and 17.04 ± 8.67ng/ml in group B. The difference was statistically significant reflecting that the mean serum vitamin D was decreased in women with GDM. (P value=0.001). The correlation coefficient (r) between HbA1c levels and Vitamin D level was -0.570 with a P value <0.0001. Similar associations were also found with the fasting blood sugar levels (r = - 0.549) Vitamin D levels correlated significantly with the fasting blood glucose, the fasting serum insulin and the HbA1c levels, the P value in all these correlations were <0.0001.
Conclusions: Low maternal serum vitamin d levels were associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. There is a statistically significant negative correlation between the glycemic control and vitamin D levels in serum in the whole study population. The effect of adequate vitamin D replacement on glycemic control was not studied in our work correlation. We suggest larger scale studies addressing this issue.