Cardiac disease is one of the important causes of maternal mortality and morbidity both in antepartum and postpartum period. The overall incidence of heart disease in pregnancy is <1%. In developing countries rheumatic heart disease is the commonest type of heart disease, whereas cardiomyopathies and congenital heart disease are more common in developed countries.
Method: A retrospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar. An analysis of the records of all the patients of heart disease with pregnancy who came to the hospital from July 2015 to July 2018 was done.
Objective: To find out type of heart disease in pregnancy, its etiology, and types of valvular lesions as well as to assess maternal and fetal outcomes in heart disease patients.
Result: A total of 41 pregnant women with heart disease were admitted at the hospital over three years duration. The mean age of women having heart disease with pregnancy was 25.39 years. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) was present in 85.3%, congenital heart disease (CHD) in 12.1% and pripartum cardiomyopathy in2.4%. Mitral stenosis (MS) was the commonest valvular lesion present in 75.6% of cases. 81% of the female were having NYHA grading I/II. LSCS was done in 78% cases. There was only 2 cases of maternal mortality. Perinatal outcome was good with 97.4% live birth rate.
Conclusion: Heart disease complicating pregnancy is a high risk condition and requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve maternal and perinatal mortality.