Infectious diseases are a common cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality especially in tropical and subtropical countries. They encompass viral diseases like viral hepatitis, HIV, rubella, CMV, genital herpes and protozoan diseases like malaria and toxoplasma. Most of these are related to poverty, poor sanitation, parasitic infestations and restricted access to proper health care.
Aims and Objective: To study common infectious diseases in pregnancy and analyse perinatal outcome
Material and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted by taking detailed history of the patients and doing certain investigations like blood hemoglobin, liver function test, coagulation profile, HIV, HBsAg, HCV, TORCH panel, immune chromatography for malaria and ultrasonography for assessment of fetal condition. Neonates were assessed as per its birth weight, fever, irritability, feeding problems, anemia, petechial, jaundice, cyanosis, hepato-splenomegaly and congenital malformations.
Results: Spontaneous abortions were most commonly seen in case of Rubella infection (37.5%) followed by HCV (30%) and malaria (14.7%). HIV infected women were most IUGR fetuses (48%) followed by malaria (34.7%). Most of the intrauterine fetal demise occurred in Toxoplasma gondii infection (44%). Rubella contributed 29.1% of IUFD. Congenital malformations were mostly evident in Rubella infection (20.8%). Most of the perinatal deaths seen in HIV positive women (16%) followed by malaria (6.6%).
Conclusion: Infections in pregnancy are important contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Awareness, primary prevention, early diagnosis and treatment are required to control seasonal and epidemic diseases such as malaria.