Pregnancy is the physiological change which causes dramatic and reversible changes in a women cardiovascular system and hemodynamic variables which require necessary adaptations in order to develop fetus normally. When this adaptation fails, the consequences like preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorder results which affects the fetus growth and delivery. Preeclampsia is one of the most common and potentially life threatening complications of pregnancy. It is a multiorgan syndrome that affects 8% to 10% of pregnancy and its the leading cause for maternal mortality and morbidity and it is the leading cause of preterm delivery. It is a unique condition of placental pathogenesis with acute onset of predominantly cardiovascular changes and dysfunction attributable to generalized vascular endothelial activation and vaso-spasm resulting in hypertension and multi-organ syndrome.
Aim and Objectives of the Study: To study the cardiac function in preeclamptic patients by transthoracic echocardiography and compare these features with normal pregnant patients, belonging to third trimester.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Govt Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital Egmore over a period of 1 year. This study has assigned and categorized into two groups.
Results: This study shows that there are significant structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with preeclampsia. It appears that BP monitoring alone is insufficient to effectively identify the risk of cardiovascular complications in these women. Maternal echocardiography, if introduced into the routine management protocol, could help to identify women who are at high risk of developing complications.
Conclusion: Women with established preeclampsia are characterised by a higher resistance in the entire arterial system. The altered arterial properties persisted after six months and were also elevated three years postpartum in women with previous preeclamptic pregnancy. These changes indicate that preeclampsia induces persistent cardiovascular disturbances.