Anaemia is a major public health problem especially among the poorer segments of the population in developing countries like India and it is one of the major challenges an obstetrician faces in his / her carrier.
In India, it is frequently severe and contributes to maternal mortality and reproductive health morbidity. It deserves more attention than its currently receiving. Recently lot of programmes have been focussed on safe motherhood but maternal anaemia remains a problem of great concern.
Aims & Objectives: To study women presenting in the antenatal department with various degrees of anaemia and find out its effect on
Maternal morbidity and mortality
Mother in puerperium
Fetal morbidity and mortality
Baby in the neonatal period
Materials Methods: 1000 antenatal patients attending the AN-OPD at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Govt. Kilpauk Medical College Hospital in the year 2018-2019 were selected for the study. These patients were screened for anaemia as is routinely done.
Inclusion Criteria: Patients of all three trimesters, with moderate or severe anaemia
Exclusion Criteria: Patients with low haemoglobin levels whose pregnancy ended in an abortion or turned out to be a molar pregnancy were excluded from the study. Patients with PIH were also excluded from the study.
Conclusion: In most of them the pregnancy is uneventful. Nutritional anaemia and hookworm infestation were the most likely cause, as all patients who came early showed drastic improvement in maternal and fetal outcome with treatment of the same.
Lower the haemoglobin, greater was the incidence of low birth weight, preterm labour and perinatal mortality. Early treatment did decrease the incidence of the above complications. But most of the patients paid their first visit only in the late third trimester. Women who had preterm labours had higher incidence of perinatal mortality.
The study clearly showed that maternal morbidity like congestive cardiac failure, atonic PPH and infections and maternal mortality was higher when haemoglobin concentration fell.
This study emphasises the need for increased awareness, regular antenatal checkups, early detection and treatment of anaemia in the study population. It also emphasises the need to strengthen our out reach services and family welfare services.