Abstract: Background and objectives:
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is known to be associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. This study was focussed on assessing the obstetric outcomes in women with GDM.
Methods: This was a hospital based longitudinal study in which 7717 antenatal women who delivered at Goa Medical College between1st November 2014 – 30th April 2016 were enrolled. 424 women among them who were diagnosed with GDM were started on Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT). Insulin was started if glycemic control was not achieved with MNT. Maternal outcomes were studied among these women and compared with 424 randomly selected non GDM antenatal women.
Results: Maternal complications like genitourinary infections (10.4%), preterm labour (17%) and premature rupture of membranes (12%) were significantly higher in the GDM study population as compared to non- GDM group. 68.2% of women with GDM were controlled on split meals while 31.8% required insulin. Majority of women with GDM delivered between 38 – 39 weeks of gestation (34.7%). It was noted that Caesarean section rates were higher in GDM group as compared to the non GDM group (38.4%). No significant increase in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage was noted in GDM group. However the incidence of puerperal sepsis was significantly higher among pregnant women with GDM (9.9%).
Conclusion: GDM is a high risk obstetric condition significantly associated with multiple maternal complications. Majority of the pregnant women with GDM can be managed with MNT and lifestyle modification alone. Early diagnosis and timely management of GDM is the mainstay of treatment for GDM.