Introduction: Premature rupture of membranes refers to rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labour, occurring in 3% of pregnancies and causing around 25-30% of all preterm deliveries. PROM patients are at a risk of the ascent of pathogenic microorganism from the lower genital tract leading to complications such as intrauterine infections and perinatal morbidity and mortality, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal sepsis, umbilical cord prolapse, placental abruption, and IUFD. With the advent of antibiotics and foetal and maternal monitoring, perinatal and maternal complications of PROM can be prevented.
Methods: This is prospective observational study conducted in an Unit of OBGYN Department in a Bangalore medical college and research institute. Total number of such patients was 50. Diagnosis was confirmed and results were analysed.
Results: Out of 50 cases, 20% were unbooked. Maximum cases were in the age group of 20-25 years (64%). primigravida (60%). 18.3% cases were of preterm PROM. 80% patients delivered vaginally. 20% cases were delivered by LSCS without trial of labour, the commonest indication of which was malpresentation(36.2%). The commonest indication of LSCS after trial of labour was fetal distress (60%). Majority of the babies had a birth weight ranging from 2.5-3kg (50%). Out of 50, 16 neonates required NICU admission (26.7%), commonest indication being Respiratory distress (4 out of 16 cases). 5 out of 16 NICU admissions were for Low birth weight (<1.8 Kg). Maternal complications seen were fever (12%), wound gape (4%) and anemia, requiring blood transfusion (4%).
Conclusion: PROM is associated with poor fetomaternal outcome which can be prevented by early diagnosis and prompt management.