Cardiac disorders complicate approximately 1-3% of pregnancies. Because more women with heart disease are reaching childbearing age due to improved medical and surgical care, and desire children, the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is increasing. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continues to be a major cause of cardiac illness in developing countries.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at RL Jalappa Hospital from January 2015 to December 2018. Total 90 women were identified as having a cardiac disorder. The women underwent clinical examination, ECG and echocardiography. Out of the 90 women, 54 women were identified with rheumatic heart disease. Their antenatal course, labor and delivery details, postnatal course and complications were systematically recorded. The immediate perinatal outcome was also documented. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software.
Results: In this study of 54 pregnant women with RHD.
The incidence of heart disease was 0.96% for all deliveries during our study period.
The incidence of RHD was 60%
65.1% of women gave a history of rheumatic fever
The most common valvular lesion was mitral stenosis.
There were more preterm births and low birth weight babies in the not-operated group.
Women with mechanical valves had good maternal and fetal outcomes.
Conclusion: The incidence of heart disease was found to be 0.96%. Rheumatic heart disease constituted for 60% of heart disease in pregnancy. Mitral stenosis has been found to be the dominant lesion in RHD. Pregnant women with mitral stenosis still are at relatively high risk of experiencing maternal complications. Early interventional treatment (balloon mitral valvulotomy or surgery) prior to conception has been recommended to patients with severe mitral stenosis who wish to get pregnant.