Abstract: Aim of Study:
To find out the risk factors (both maternal and fetal) in causing meconium stained amniotic fluid in women in labour at SAT Hospital, Trivandrum.
Methodology: Our study is a case-control study with cases: controls = 1:2. Our sample size =351; cases =117 and control=234. CASES include women with gestational age ≥37 weeks in labour with meconium stained liquor which is assessed by looking at the colour of liquor at the time of rupture of membranes or after rupture of membranes, Controls include women with gestational age ≥ 37 weeks in labour with clear liquor at the time of rupture of membranes till delivery.
Results: In our study, we found out that the risk factors for meconium stained liquor were gestational age ≥ 40 weeks, ante-natal check-ups <3, maternal disease like anaemia, hypothyroidism, gestational diabetes, maternal infections like vaginitis, UTI, LRTI, fetal factors like IUGR, cord around neck at the time of birth. In my study, thick meconium is seen in 20.7% cases. Meconium aspiration syndrome was seen in 30% babies admitted to NICU.
Conclusion: Maternal conditions like hypothyroidism and anaemia should be treated in women of reproductive group before conceiving. During our ante-natal check-ups IUGR and liquor volume should be detected. Gestational age more than 40 weeks was associated with MSAF and delaying induction till 42 weeks may increase the risk of meconium stained liquor. Maternal infections like vaginitis, UTI, LRTI should be treated at the earliest. Risk factors like gestational diabetes, anaemia hypothyroidism, IUGR and oligaminos were associated with thick MSAF and meconium aspiration syndrome.