To study the effect of BMI and maternal weight gain during pregnancy and its effect on maternal and fetal outcome.
Methods: This study is a prospective randomised study where 1000 women were included. BMI was calculated on the first visit and before 12 weeks and all women were followed throughout pregnancy and delivery for any maternal and fetal complications.
Results: Maximum number of women 48.6% were with normal BMI, 37.5% were overweight, 9.2% were underweight and 4.7% were obese. Incidence of pre-eclampsia was highest in group D 23% followed by group C 8.8% and this was significant (p value=0.034, <0.0001). Gestational diabetes was highest in (group D) obese subjects (19.1%, p value=<0.0001) antepartum haemorrhage and gestational hypertension was similar in all the groups. Rate of abortions was highest in (group D) obese subjects 12.8%, p value= 0.011) followed by group C %, (p value=0.033). Underweight women (group A) had largest number of preterm deliveries (17.4%, p value=0.0004) and maximum number of post-term deliveries were observed in obese women (group D) (21%, p value=0.023). Babies born to underweight women had significantly less mean birth weight (p=0.001) and those born to overweight and obese women had significantly more mean birth weight (p= 0.024) and (p=0.005) respectively.
Conclusion: The study has shown an association between maternal weight (underweight, overweight and obese) and pregnancy outcome. There is importance of prepregnancy counseling in maintaining weight of women during pregnancy to avoid maternal and fetal outcomes.