Pregnancy is very special to each woman in her life; the first trimester bleeding is one among the common complication during the pregnancy. Not all bleeding lead to abortion but the continued pregnancy can cause some adverse events such as preterm labour, premature rupture of membrane, placental abruption, intrauterine death and intra uterine growth retardation. Normal pregnancy outcomes also can be seen in the patients with first trimester bleeding.
Materials and Methods: The study was an observational longitudinal study conducted in one of the private medical college in south Indian state Kerala, following the 100 participants for 10 months of their pregnancy during their OPD visits and noted the changes. The research objective was to determine materno-foetal outcomes in pregnancy complicated with first trimester bleeding.
Results: Among the 100 participants 83% were from the age group of 20-30 years mean age was 25.35 (SD±4.04). 78% of them were primigravida. There were six outcomes preterm labour (47), premature rupture of membrane (14%), placental abruption (8%), intrauterine death (3%), intra uterine growth retardation (7%) and normal pregnancy outcome (21%). If bleeding increases, there was an increased incidence of placental abruption in the third trimester (OR=1.107 95% CI 1.032 - 1.19). It was two times likely to have the chance of intra uterine growth retardation in the foetus if the mother had an experience of first trimester bleeding (OR=1.953 95% CI .413 – 9.244) also there are chances for normal deliveries too (OR=1.149 95% CI. 442 – 2.989).
Conclusion: The first trimester bleeding increases the adverse events in the pregnancy outcomes. The risk increases with the bleeding though we can reduce the risk through timely or early interventions. It was two times likely to have the chance of intra uterine growth retardation in the foetus if the mother had an experience of first trimester bleeding and also there are chances for normal deliveries too.