Preeclampsia is a disorder specific to pregnancy. It is commonly defined as de novo hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestational age. It occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies and is a major cause of both foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. One of the most serious and terrifying complication of preeclampsia is abruptio placentae. Premature placental separation from its implantation site before delivery of the foetus has been called abruption placentae or accidental haemorrhage. Various studies have shown that there is 2-2.5 fold increase in incidence of abruption in hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.
The aim of the study is to study the incidence of abruptio placentae in women with preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: 100 pregnant women with preeclampsia attending the antenatal OPD as well as admitted to the antenatal ward and labour room. Those women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. The incidence of abruption placenta among these 100 women was studied.
Results: Among the 100 women with preeclampsia enrolled in the study, abruptio placentae was noted in 16 women (16%). Maternal complications were seen in the form of anaemia 11(78.57%), need for blood transfusion 8(57.14%), shock 4(28.57%), postpartum haemorrhage 2(14.28%) and puerperal sepsis 1(7.14%). Perinatal complications were seen in the form of low birth weight 8(57.14%), prematurity 5(35.71%), NICU admission 10(71.43%) and intrauterine death 4(28.57%).
Conclusion: Abruptio placentae affects approximately 1% of all deliveries. However, the incidence significantly increases in cases of preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Association of abruptio placentae in cases of preeclampsia varies from 10-50%. In our study, incidence of abruption placenta in preeclampsia is 16%.