Amniotic Fluid Index of 5cm or less is oligohydramnios. It is associated with perinatal complications such as IUGR, low birth weight, acute fetal distress, perinatal morbidity and mortality. Incidence is 3.9% in all the pregnancies. Between 36-40 weeks, incidence is 2.4%.
Materials and Methods: It is cohort study of analysis of pregnancy outcome in 200 cases with AFI<5 after 34 completed weeks of gestation in comparison to 200 controls without oligohydramnios. The study and control group consisted of pregnant patients admitted in Goa Medical College, Goa over a period of 24 months.
Results and Analysis: The mean gestational age was 36.1 weeks. IUGR was associated with 43% cases (p value <0.001). 28% cases had gestational hypertension (p value <0.001). the non-stress test was non-reactive in 30% patients (p value <0.001%). 17.5% cases reported to have fetal heart rate decelerations during labor (p value <0.23). 63% patients underwent cesarean section and 7.5% patients required instrumental delivery. The mean birth weight in study group was 1.76kg (p value 0.51). The mean of the APGAR value at 1 minute and 5 minute of birth was 7.63 and 9 respectively (p value <0.01). 40.5% required NICU admission <p value 0.001).
Conclusion: In view of increased complications seen with oligohydramnios in pregnancy, it is important to follow stringent guidelines for early diagnosis in the interest of better pregnancy and neonatal outcome.