Abstract: Background and Objective:
Abnormal vaginal discharge is characterized by change of colour, consistency, volume, or odour, and may be associated with symptoms such as itch, soreness, dysuria, pelvic pain, or intermenstrual or post-coital bleeding. Main objective of the study is to know the incidence of symptomatic vaginal discharge in various age groups and to know the microbiological profile in women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge.
Methods: The study was conducted in the department of OBG, EPIONE Hera Hospitals over a period of 20 months Aug 2018- Apr 2020 among women complaining of vaginal discharge of various degrees who fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. A detailed clinical history and examination of all cases were done, a speculum was inserted into the vagina, to visualize cervix and vagina, any pathology in the cervix and vagina noted, swabs were collected from the posterior fornix of vagina and sent for microbiological examination. Following tests were done a) Gram staining and Nugent scoring system used, based on the morphology of the bacteria, score 0 to 7 is considered positive for bacterial vaginosis, b) Wet mount preparation done to look for motility of Trichomonas, c) KOH preparation, d) Swabs are inoculated in Blood agar, Mac Conkey’s agar and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar.
Results: Out of 260 cases, majority of the patients 145 (55.76%) were in the age group of 19-28 years, followed by 91 (35%) cases in the age group 29-38 years, 21 (8.07%) cases in age Group 39-48 and 3 (1.15%) were below 19 years. Maximum 128 (49.23%) were illiterate, followed by 82 (31.53%) were with primary schooling educational status. Most of the women 160 (61.53%) were in the lower socioeconomic status followed by 62 (23.84%) upper lower class. Majority patients 161 (61.92%) had associated combined symptoms of foul smell and itching, others like only vaginal discharge 51 (19.61%) abdominal pain 18 (6.92%), burning micturition 13 (5%), heavy menstrual bleeding (3.46%) and lower backache 8 (3.07%) were noted. Large part 98 (37.69%) showed mucopurculent discharge, followed by 89 (34.23%) yellowish and fothy discharge, curdy white 46 (17.69%) and homogenous discharge 27 (10.38%). Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is maximum 122 (46.92%), followed by Trichomonas vaginalis 99 (38.07%), vaginal candidiasis 18 (6.92%), other nonspecific 9 (3.46%). In around 10 (3.84%) of cases no cause was identified.
Conclusion: White discharge is one of the major women public health problem, principle morbidity to the women in terms of loss of self-esteem, reduction in work time, increased hospital visits and their expenses and also vulnerable to pelvic inflammatory diseases, infertility, endometriosis, cuff cellulitis, urethral syndrome, spontaneous abortions, preterm labor etc. So, it is very important for microbiological diagnosis of abnormal vaginal discharge especially, when a patient is having recurrence or not responding to standard therapy. Increase of educational status in urban and rural areas is considered one of the greatest way to reduce the genital health problems.