Background: The complications related to pregnancy and childbirth are the main causes of disability and mortality among the women of reproductive age. Like poor maternal health during pregnancy and lack of care during and after delivery, and also vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in perinatal morbidity. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is common in many parts of the world. There is a very strong statistical relationship between vitamin D deficiency and multiple potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Aim and Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of vitamin D during pregnancy and assess the association of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, TRR Institute of Medical Sciences, Inole (v), Patancheru (M), Sangareddy (Dist.), Telangana, India, consisting of n = 110 subjects, the pregnant women attending the antenatal outpatient department attached to the Medical College. They were tested for serum vitamin D levels.
Results: In this study, 9.1% of the subjects in the study group had normal vitamin D levels, 28.2% study participants were insufficient and 62.7% were deficient in vitamin D levels. Among the total n = 110 subjects, 11.8% participants were observed to be hypertensive (PIH), out of which 30.8% participant women had normal vitamin D levels, 23.1% had insufficient and 46.2% had deficient vitamin D levels. The present study results revealed the presence of low levels of vitamin D amongst the pregnant women. However, the findings of this study showed statistically significant association of vitamin D levels with the incidences of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, preterm birth, rate of primary Lower Segment Cesarean Section (LSCS), Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admissions except for the low birth weight babies.
Conclusion: The current study observations revealed the presence of low levels of vitamin D amongst the pregnant women subjects. Statistical significance was found associated between vitamin D levels and the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, vitamin D supplementation could be possible recommendation for all the women who are pregnant and breast feeding.