Background: Oligohydramnios is a clinical condition characterized by amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 5cm or less. Oligohydramnios is associated with increased pregnancy related complications, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. There is an inverse relationship between the amniotic fluid index (AFI) and the adverse perinatal outcome. Recognition of the foetus at risk for death or damage in utero, balancing the fetal risk against the risk of neonatal complications from immaturity and determining the optimal time and mode of intervention is therefore very important to prevent perinatal mortality and morbidity.
Objective: This prospective case control study was done with the aim to analyze the fetal outcome in low risk pregnant women with oligohydramnios at term.
Material and Methods: 100 antenatal women were assessed in Maharshi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, Haryana. Proper history was taken and clinical examination was done. AFI was measured and perinatal outcome was compared between the two groups with AFI <5 and >5.
Results: Pregnant women were divided to two groups. 25 pregnant women with AFI ≤ 5cm with low risk pregnancies at term were included in group A and 75 women with AFI ≥ 5cm and ≤ 20cm were included in group B. The two groups were similar with regard to maternal age, parity and mean gestational age. Women in the oligohydroamnious group had increased rate of cesarean sections (40%). Fetal distress was observed in 28.8% women in oligohydroamnios group and 14.55% in the control group. 32.1% of the group A women delivered low birth weight babies while the incidence of low birth weight babies in the control group was 17.33%. 36.2% of women in Group A underwent induction of labour. 18.66% of women in control group underwent induction of labour. 2 babies in oligohydroamnios group had APGAR Score <7 at 1 minute, while 3 babies in control group had APGAR Score < 7 at 1 minute. 1 baby in each group had APGAR Score< 7 at 5 minutes. 8.2% of the babies in oligohydroamnios group were admitted in NICU. While, no baby in control group required NICU admission.
Conclusion: Oligohydramnios is associated with high rate of pregnancy related complications and increase in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Thus, AFI measurement must be done in all term pregnancies in order to improve the perinatal outcomes.