Background: Asian women are ethnically more prone to develop glucose intolerance during pregnancy compared to other ethnic groups. Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common medical disorder of pregnancy and is frequently associated with maternal and fetal complications.
Materials and Methods: This was a Prospective study included 500 pregnant women both primigravidae and multigravidae at 11- 14 weeks gestation meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria in Dept. of OBG, Al-Ameen Medical College, Vijayapur. A detailed history and examination were carried out and Universal screening and diagnosis of GDM was done using DIPSI criteria. The cases which were positive after screening were managed with MNT, Metformin or Insulin accordingly. Cases were followed up till delivery, data was documented and analysed.
Results: Out of 500 patients screened, incidence of GDM was found to be 3.4% out of which 2.7% in those screened at 24-28weeks and 0.7% at 32weeks of gestation. Out of 16 GDM cases 12 cases were managed with MNT alone. 1 was managed with OHA (Metformin) and 3 were put on insulin therapy along with MNT. Total cases of polyhydramnios were 3, GHTN and preterm birth were 1 case each. Total NICU admissions among the GDM patients were 5. They were mainly for hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycaemia, and shoulder dystocia. There was no maternal or perinatal mortality in our study.
Conclusion: DIPSI’s recommendation of 75gm OGCT irrespective of the last meal is a very simple, cost effective and feasible procedure for universal screening and diagnosis of GDM which was carried out in our study and hence early diagnosis and adequate glycemic control in antenatal period reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality significantly.